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Table 5 List of different capping agents in chemical and biological syntheses

From: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with algae and the importance of capping agents in the process

Method Silver precursor Reducing agent Stabilizing/capping agents Size (nm) & shape Reference
Chemical reduction AgNO3 Trisodium citrate NaBH4 60 & 100 nm (0.75 ml and 1 ml of NaBH4 respectively)
Spherical
[136]
Chemical reduction AgNO3 Sodium citrate NaBH4 ̴ 23
Spherical
[137]
Chemical reduction AgNO3 MSA (mercaptosuccinic acid) MSA ̴ 65
Spherical
[137]
Chemical reduction AgNO3 NaBH4 Thioctic acid ̴ 44
Spherical
[137]
Chemical reduction AgNO3 PVP 15
Spherical
[138]
Chemical reduction AgNO3 Citrate 12.6
Spherical
[138]
Chemical reduction AgNO3 BPEI (branched polyethyleneimine) 11.5
Spherical
[138]
Chemical reduction AgNO3 Trisodium citrate SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate) 19
Spherical
[139]
Chemical reduction AgNO3 Trisodium citrate PEG 50
Spherical
[139]
By plant AgNO3 Cleome viscosa Alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins, proteins 5–30
Spherical
[140]
Plant AgNO3 Callicarpa maingayi Alkaloids, flavonoids, -OH, -NH, -C=O groups 13–15.6
Spherical
[141]
Plant AgNO3 Citrus limon Citric acid 16–18
Spherical
[142]
Plant AgNO3 Murraya koenigii Carboxylic acids, alcohol, ether, proteins 5–20
Spherical
[143]
Fungi AgNO3 Fusarium oxysporum Proteins 10–20
Spherical
[66]
Fungi AgNO3 Aspergillus oryzae Proteins < 105
(depending on pH, temp, and conc. of AgNO3)
Spherical
[67]
Fungi AgNO3 Trichoderma reesei Proteins 5–50
Spherical
[68]
Bacteria AgNO3 E.Coli -NH, -OH, Carbonyl, CN triple bond in proteins 118
Spherical
[144]
Bacteria AgNO3 Bacillus cereus Proteins 10–30
Spherical
[69]
Brown algae AgNO3 Padina sp. Polyphenols, Fatty acids (Hexadecanoic acid) 25–61.4
Spherical
[145]
Marine red algae AgNO3 Spyridia fusiforms Proteins, Secondary cyclic alcohols 5–50
Mostly spherical, some triangular and rounded rectangular
[146]