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Table 2 Recombinant proteins produced in BEV for the development of COVID-19 vaccines

From: Application of Baculovirus Expression Vector system (BEV) for COVID-19 diagnostics and therapeutics: a review

Proteins Modifications Host Cells Purification Method Yield Purity Specific Applications References
Spike protein, S1 and receptor-binding domain (RBD) Signal peptide, ectodomain, T4 foldon trimerization domain, thrombin cleavage site, spacer, ferritin, viral protein, and peptide tags added. Mutations introduced to the sequences. Sf9/Sf21/High Five/ expresSF+/ BmN/silkworm larvae Affinity or anion or gel filtration chromatography/ Ultrasonic crushing and ultracentrifugation/ Tangential flow filtration/Dialysis 0.19 - 30 mg/l 90 - 98% Subunit vaccine [16, 19, 55,56,57,58,59]
Spike protein, S1, receptor binding domain (RBD) Codon-optimized and fusion with MERS-CoV S gene corresponding to the N-terminal domain (NTD) (RBD). Sf9/293T Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable DNA Vaccine [60]
Envelope, Membrane, Spike, S1 and influenza matrix protein 1 proteins Signal peptides, prefusion stabilized ectodomain, T4 fibritin  trimerization signal, peptide tags, linker, cleavage site, transmembrane and tail domain added. Codon optimization. Sf9/ExpiSf9 Affinity chromatography/Sucrose gradient centrifugation 0.005 – 11 mg/mL Not measured VLP vaccine [61,62,63]
Human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) GP67 signal peptide sequence added at N terminus. Hexa-His tag added to the C terminus. Sf9/High Five Gel Filtration Chromatography Not measured Not measured Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay [64]