Skip to main content

Table 3 Factors associated with NAFLD in T2DM patients (n = 129)

From: Sociodemographic and genetic determinants of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

Variable ORa 95% CI for OR p-value
Lower Upper
Age (≤ 50 years) 1.459 0.721 2.953 0.382
Sex (female) 2.998 1.398 6.430 0.007
Family income (≤ 20000 PKR/month) 1.553 0.758 3.185 0.307
Education (illiterate) 3.067 1.446 6.505 0.005
Smoking (yes) 1.844 0.326 10.440 0.683
Any comorbidity (yes) 1.040 0.521 2.078 1.000
Family history of diabetes (yes) 0.853 0.394 1.849 0.837
Duration of diabetes (≥ 10 years) 1.700 0.711 4.067 0.326
Waist circumference male (≥ 40 inch) 2.000 0.523 7.647 0.324
Waist circumference female (≥ 35 inch) 5.333 1.301 21.869 0.019
Body mass index (≥ 30.0 Kg/m2) 2.211 1.075 4.545 0.046
Alanine transaminase (≥ 40 IU/L) 0.770 0.277 2.141 0.810
Random plasma glucose (≥ 200 mg/dl) 1.692 0.793 3.611 0.240
HbA1c (> 8.0 %) 1.559 0.771 3.151 0.289
PNPLA3 genotype (GG/CC) 1.831b 0.748 4.478 0.266
PNPLA3 genotype (CG/CC) 1.436c 0.545 3.780 0.624
PNPLA3 genotype (GG + CG/CC) 1.644 0.797 3.391 0.243
PNPLA3 genotype (GG/CG + CC) 1.700 0.711 4.067 0.326
  1. an = 129; bn = 108; cn = 102; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NAFLD, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus. p-value ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant