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Table 1 Surface topography and gene delivery. Research papers assessing the effect of different surface topographies on surface-mediated non-viral gene delivery

From: Physical and mechanical cues affecting biomaterial-mediated plasmid DNA delivery: insights into non-viral delivery systems

Biomaterial Cell type Transfection system Change in transfection efficiency Ref.
Coverslips coated with a lipid film, having 3D-bicontinuous cubic, 2D-inverted hexagonal, or 1D-lamellar nanostructures HeLa-Luc cell line, stably expressing the luciferase siRNA directly loaded into the lipid film Luciferase activity (luminescence/mg protein) was 4 × 105 in the untreated control.
Highest gene silencing efficacy was for 3D-bicontinuous phase (luciferase activity 1.5. × 105).
In 2D-hexagonal and 1D-lamellar phases, luciferase activity was almost 2.5 × 105.
Bolus delivery (Lipofectamine™) showed gene silencing efficacy similar to that of 3D-bicontinuous phase.
Micropatterns with different diameter and aspect ratio Human MSCs Cationic polyplexes Highest transfection efficiency was 20%, for ellipses with aspect ratio 8:1 and surface area 80 μm.
Lowest transfection efficiency was 2%, for circular micropattern with a diameter of 20 μm.
Nanogrooved and nanopillar surfaces with different width/diameter and height Normal human lung fibroblasts Lipofectamine™ 2000 Highest % of transfection was 50%, in grooves 500 nm in width and 150 nm in height and in nanopillars with a diameter of 500 nm and a width of 150 nm.
In flat surfaces, % transfection was 30%
Nanogrooved surfaces with different deep and depth C2C12 skeletal myoblasts jetPEI® (Polyplus, US) Decrease of 73% in transfection efficiency, on nanogrooved patterns of 400 nm groove width and 400 nm depth, compared to flat surfaces.
Decrease of 90% on nanogrooved pattern of 800 nm groove width and 500 nm depth, compared to flat surfaces.
Nanogratins and nanopillar surfaces Human MSCs Lipofectamine™ 2000 Highest % transfection was at 3.3%, for cells on grooves of 250 nm width. In flat surfaces, % transfection was 1.8% [148]
SiNWs Jurkat, L1.2 and GPE86 Naked DNA % of transfection was 20%, 20% and 5% in GPE86, L1.2 and Jurkat respectively.
% transfection was between 0% and 1%, in flat surfaces for all cell types.
SiNWs with different heights Human dental pulp stem cells Naked DNA % transfection was 90% for SiNW with heights of 1.2 and 3.5 μm.
% transfection was less than 10% for SiNW with heights of 0.4 μm and 6.3 μm.
SiNWs Mouse embryonic stem cells Naked DNA Transfection efficiency lower than 1%. [151]
Ethanolamine-functionalised SiNWs HeLa Naked DNA Luciferase expression (luminescence/mg protein) was 106 in ethanolamine-functionalised siNWs, compared to 104 in non-functionalised siNWs [152]
Nanopillars of different diameter C2C12 skeletal myoblasts jetPRIME® or Lipofectamine™ For jetPRIME®, luciferase expression (luminescence/mg protein) was 8 × 103 for pillars with a diameter of 1000 nm, whereas in flat surfaces it was 3 × 103
For Lipofetamine™, luciferase expression was 1 × 103 in nanopillars with a diameter 1000 nm and 5 × 103 in flat surfaces.