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Table 2 Human genes expressed in transgenic mice are targeted by murine miRNAs in corresponding transgenic mice. Human genes expressed in transgenic mice become potential targets of Mus musculus miRNAs due to their foreign nature. This miRNA-target mRNA interaction may often lead to interference with their expression in mice. The potentially targeting miRNAs were retrieved from miRDB using their custom target prediction tool

From: Inadvertent nucleotide sequence alterations during mutagenesis: highlighting the vulnerabilities in mouse transgenic technology

Genes and accession numbers Function miRNAs targeting the transcript Example of mouse strains References
hTNF-α (NM_000594) Regulatory role in inflammatory response and host defense against bacterial infection. mmu-miR-466 l-3p, mmu-miR-3967, mmu-miR-8093, mmu-miR-7224-3p, mmu-miR-504-3p, mmu-miR-5127, mmu-miR-150-5p, mmu-miR-7660-3p, mmu-miR-105, mmu-miR-7049-5p, mmu-miR-721, mmu-miR-6389, mmu-miR-6341, mmu-miR-301b-3p, mmu-miR-301a-3p, mmu-miR-130c, mmu-miR-130b-3p, mmu-miR-130a-3p, mmu-miR-7086-5p, mmu-miR-6418-5p, mmu-miR-210-5p, mmu-miR-6910-5p, hTNFalpha transgenic mice [26]
APOA5 (NM_052968) Regulatory role in maintenance of plasma triglyceride levels. mmu-miR-138-2-3p, mmu-miR-3098-3p, mmu-miR-3057-3p, mmu-miR-3085-3p, mmu-miR-3064-5p, mmu-miR-7081-3p, mmu-miR-6936-5p, mmu-miR-1894-5p, mmu-miR-7648-3p, mmu-miR-6940-5p, mmu-miR-6356, mmu-miR-361-3p, mmu-miR-762, mmu-miR-1964-5p, mmu-miR-7214-3p, mmu-miR-6979-5p hAPOA5 transgenic mice [16]
hAPOAV transgenic mice [38]
APOC3 (NM_000040) Regulatory role in maintenance of plasma triglyceride levels. Inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase. mmu-miR-7042-3p, mmu-miR-7238-3p, mmu-miR-6899-3p, mmu-miR-6950-5p, mmu-miR-7216-5p, mmu-miR-6540-3p, mmu-miR-6979-5p, mmu-miR-1982-5p, mmu-miR-7672-5p, mmu-miR-127-5p, mmu-miR-3099-5p human apoC-III Tg mice (stock No. 006907) [61]
hAPOC3 transgenic mice [16]
APOA1 (NM_000039) Involved in lipid/ cholesterol transport and metabolism. mmu-miR-6392-5p, mmu-miR-5622-3p, mmu-miR-708-5p, mmu-miR-28a-5p, mmu-miR-5621-5p Tg Hu ApoA1 mice (stock No. 001927) [53]
HD-5 (NM_021010) Cytotoxic/ antimicrobial protein involved in host defense against pathogens. mmu-miR-3074-5p, mmu-miR-7240-5p, mmu-miR-3473a, mmu-miR-185-5p, mmu-miR-1933-3p, mmu-miR-882, mmu-miR-145a-3p, mmu-miR-203b-3p, mmu-miR-7217-3p, mmu-miR-1264-5p, mmu-miR-7229-3p, mmu-miR-881-5p, mmu-miR-691, mmu-miR-7216-5p, mmu-miR-539-5p, mmu-miR-1897-5p, mmu-miR-12186-5p, mmu-miR-665-3p, mmu-miR-6338, mmu-miR-29b-2-5p HD-5 transgenic mice [40]
HOXD3 (NM_006898) Transcription factor that plays a regulatory role in morphogenesis. mmu-miR-873a-5p, mmu-miR-7220-3p, mmu-miR-6370, mmu-miR-1968-5p, mmu-miR-495-3p, mmu-miR-12200-5p, mmu-miR-1192, mmu-miR-8118, mmu-miR-6394, mmu-miR-6367, mmu-miR-351-5p, mmu-miR-125b-5p, mmu-miR-125a-5p, mmu-miR-6387, mmu-miR-12186-3p, mmu-miR-1968-3p, mmu-miR-195b, mmu-miR-195a-5p, mmu-miR-7049-3p, mmu-miR-1948-5p, mmu-miR-1907, mmu-miR-6988-5p, mmu-miR-7226-5p, mmu-miR-6419, mmu-miR-6342, mmu-miR-497a-5p, mmu-miR-322-5p, mmu-miR-6353, mmu-miR-16-5p, mmu-miR-15b-5p, mmu-miR-15a-5p, mmu-miR-546, mmu-miR-497a-3p, mmu-miR-7016-5p, mmu-miR-3068-5p, mmu-miR-124b-3p pHOXD3-transduced CD-1 mice [8]
p HA/HoxD3 transduced C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice [19]
3’ UTR in CETP minigene (NM_000078) Involved in cholesteryl ester and triglyceride transfer between lipids (HDL, VLDL, LDL). mmu-miR-6396, mmu-miR-7016-5p, mmu-miR-6967-5p, mmu-miR-1943-5p, mmu-miR-149-3p, mmu-miR-770-3p, mmu-miR-6918-3p CETP mice (stock No. 003904) [41]
CDS (exon 1, 2, 13-16) in CETP minigene (NM_000078) mmu-miR-6396, mmu-miR-487b-5p, mmu-miR-7016-5p, mmu-miR-6967-5p, mmu-miR-1943-5p, mmu-miR-149-3p, mmu-miR-3475-3p, mmu-miR-6972-5p, mmu-miR-449a-5p, mmu-miR-34a-5p
IL 8/CXCL 8 (BC013615) Chemokine involved in immune response by promoting chemotaxis and phagocytosis. mmu-miR-140-3p, mmu-miR-6931-5p, mmu-miR-6951-5p, mmu-miR-7216-5p, mmu-miR-7675-3p, mmu-miR-497b, mmu-miR-3572-3p, mmu-miR-5101, mmu-miR-216c-5p, mmu-miR-3473f, mmu-miR-7683-3p, mmu-miR-7027-5p, mmu-miR-7116-3p, mmu-miR-682, mmu-miR-493-5p, mmu-miR-694, mmu-miR-7010-5p, mmu-miR-6951-3p, mmu-miR-376a-5p, mmu-miR-466i-3p, mmu-miR-7685-5p, mmu-miR-7670-5p, mmu-miR-212-5p, mmu-miR-466 l-3p, mmu-miR-669c-3p, mmu-miR-669d-3p, mmu-miR-467 g, mmu-miR-466e-3p, mmu-miR-466d-3p, mmu-miR-466a-3p, mmu-miR-297c-3p, mmu-miR-297b-3p, mmu-miR-297a-3p, mmu-miR-150-3p, mmu-miR-666-3p, mmu-miR-6964-5p, mmu-miR-691, mmu-miR-499-3p, mmu-miR-6998-3p, mmu-miR-7119-3p, mmu-miR-205-3p, mmu-miR-7221-3p, mmu-miR-6481, mmu-miR-6908-3p IL-8Tg mice [1]
hACE2 (NM_001371415) Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of angiotensin II into angiotensin. Also serves as receptor for coronaviruses. mmu-miR-6964-3p, mmu-miR-465d-5p, mmu-miR-465c-5p, mmu-miR-465b-5p, mmu-miR-465a-5p, mmu-miR-7054-5p, mmu-miR-6999-5p, mmu-miR-7665-3p, mmu-miR-26b-5p, mmu-miR-26a-5p, mmu-miR-1929-5p, mmu-miR-6978-3p, mmu-miR-6338, mmu-miR-29b-2-5p, mmu-miR-6951-5p, mmu-miR-7018-5p, mmu-miR-7680-5p, mmu-miR-7221-3p, mmu-miR-802-5p, mmu-miR-6914-3p, mmu-miR-1298-3p, mmu-miR-6994-5p K18-hACE2 mice (stock No. 034860) [57]
hACE2 transgenic mice (ACTB promoter) [49]
Transgenic hACE2 mice (endogenous mouse Ace2 promoter) [2]