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Table 1 Effect of biological material, precursor concentration and extract concentration on the morphology of biological nanoparticles

From: Biogenic nanoparticles: a comprehensive perspective in synthesis, characterization, application and its challenges

Plant name and part used Nanoparticles Precursor Concentration of plant extract used Size Shape References
Aloe vera leaf Gold and Silver 1 mM HAuCl4
10 mM AgNO3
0.5–4 mL
5 mL
5–50 nm Gold-triangular, spherical Silver-spherical [35]
Avena sativa biomass Gold 0.1 mM Au(III) 2 mL 5–20 nm Tetrahedral, deca- hedral, hexagonal, icosahedral multitwinned, irregular shape, and rod shape nanoparticles [36]
Black tea leaf extract Gold and Silver 0.01 M HAuCl4 AgNO3 10 mL 20 spherical [37]
Cinnamon zeylanicum bark powder Silver 1 mM AgNO3 5 mL 31–40 cubic, hexagonal [38]
Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaf Gold, Silver 0.0005 M HAuCl4
0.0008 M AgNO3
5 mL
20 mL
14
13
Gold-triangular, hexagonal, dodecahedral and spherical
Silver-spherical
[39]
Ocimum sanctum leaf Gold, Silver 1 mM AuCl4
1 mM AgNO3
30 mL
25 mL
30
13
Gold-hexagonal, prism
Silver-spherical
[40]
Parthenium hysterophorus leaf Silver 1 mM AgNO3 50 mL 50 Irregular [41]
Pear fruit extract Gold 2 mM HAuCl4 500 mL 200–500 Triangular, hexagonal [42]
Tamarindus indica leaf Gold 1 mM HAuCl4 45 mL 20–40 triangular [43]
Garcinia mangostana pericarp Gold, Silver 10 mM, HAuCl4
10 mM, AgNO3
3 mL 13.65 ± 5.07 to 31.08 ± 3.99 Nanodumbbell shapes [44]
Terminalia chebula Seed Gold 0.01 M HAuCl4 2 mL 6–60 Triangles, pentagons and spheres [45]
Cassia tora leaf Gold 1 mM HAuCl4 100 mL 41-57 spherical [46]
Madhuca longifolia flower Silver 1 mM AgNO3 30 mL 30-50 Spherical and oval [47]
banana stem Silver 2 mM AgNO3 9 mL 75.50 nm to 1.22 μm Truncated octahedron, rhomb-dodecahedron, cubic, octahedron and octagon [48]
Pine cone Silver 1 mM AgNO3 45 mL 1–50 Triangular and hexagonal [49]
Lycium chinense fruit Gold, Silver 1 mM HAuCl4
1 mM AgNO3
50 mL 20–100 nm, 50–200 nm Polydispersed, spherical [50]
Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) leaves Platinum 1mM H2PtCl6 190 mL 23 nm Spherical [51]
Diopyros kaki leaf Platinum 1mM H2PtCl6 190 mL 2–20 nm Spheres and plates [52]
Curcuma longa tuber Palladium 1 mM PdCl2 50 mL 15 to 20 nm Spherical [53]
Musa ornate flower Iron 5 mM FeSO4 10 mL 43.69 nm   [54]
Calotropis Gigantean flower Iron 0.01 M FeNO3.9H2O 10 mL 50–90 nm Spherical [55]
eucalyptus leaf Iron 0.10 M FeSO4 10 mL 20–80 nm Spherical [56]
tea powder Iron 0.1 N Fe(NO3)3 10 mL 40 to 50 nm Spherical [57]
Platanus orientalis leaf Iron oxide Fe(NO3)3   30–40 nm Spherical [58]
Ficus carica fruit Iron oxide 0.14 M FeCl3.6H2O 10 mL 475 nm Spherical [59]
Conyza Canadensis leaf Zinc oxide 0.15 M ZnNO3 20 mL in 80 mL Somewhat spherical [60]
Lemongrass leaves Zinc oxide ZnNO3 50 mL 85–98 nm Spherical [61]
Hibiscus subdariffa leaf Zinc oxide 91 mM ZnC4H6O4 50 mL 12–46 nm Spherical, dumbbell shaped [62]
Costus pictus D. Don leaf Zinc oxide 0.1 M (Zn(NO3)2 50 mL 40 nm Elongated, hexagonal and rodshaped [63]
Artemisia abrotanum Magnesium oxide Mg (NO3)2 90 mL 10 nm Spherical [64]
Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf Magnesium oxide 5 mM Mg (NO3)2 150 mL 13 nm Spherical [65]
Punica granatum Peels Magnesium oxide MgSO4 0.1 M 250 mL 50–65 nm   [66]
Brassica oleracea flower Magnesium oxide MgSO4 0.1 M 250 mL 30–45 nm